Waterbirth Latest Articles and Protocols

Waterbirth Latest Articles and Protocols

bath-03 - Copyright 2004 Birth Balance

~ Feel free to download and use these articles, protocols, literature reviews and bibliography.
~ The * in front of the articles and protocols have been furnished by Waterbirth International. Please credit accordingly.
~ Protocols have been developed as “Guidelines,” which change from time to time.

Latest Internet Research

Laboring in Water Helpful for Dystocia
(Click to view the article on this site)

Waterbirths and Tearing
(Click to view the article on this site)

Question of the Quarter: What is your favorite waterbirth story?

A Landmark in the History of Birthing Pools – by Michel Odent, MD.

How to Make a Portable Waterbirth Tub – by Melanie Moore

To Order Waterbirth Guidelines: United Kingdom 

An International Collaboration: Water Immersion During Labor and Birth

Perinatal mortality and Morbidity Among Babies Delivered in Water: Surveillance Study and Postal Survey. Ruthe E. Gilbert & Pat Tookey

Randomised controlled trial of labouring in water compared with standard of augmentation for management of dystocia in first stage of labour
Elizabeth R Cluett, Ruth M Pickering, senior lecturer in medical , Kathryn Getliffe,Nigel James St George Saunders 

The Waterbirth Debate Up-To-Date Sheila Kitzinger’s letter from Europe
Birth Issues in Perinatal Care Sept 2000

Latest News on Waterbirth with Sheila Kitzinger


AIMS Journal – Summer 2000

A Comparative Study of Over 2,000 Waterbirths – Frauenfeld, Switzerland

Australian Waterbirth Editorial – A warning

Beverly Beech on Waterbirth – “It’s time we started taking labour and birth in water more seriously.”

BMJ January 2004: Cluett Study of Waterbirth as an Alternative Pain Management Strategy – Randomised controlled trial of labouring in water compared with standard of augmentation for management of dystocia in first stage of labour

Guidelines for Warm Water Immersion for Labor and Birth

Guidelines for the Use of Water in Labour and Birth – College of Midwives – British Columbia

Literature Reviews – A review of the literature prepared by Traci Elliff, CNM

MIDIRS Article – Barbara Harper wrote an interesting piece on re-evaluating the temperature of water during a waterbirth published in MIDIRS, December 2003.

Morton Plant Mease Health Care – Protocols for Water Immersion

Oregon Health and Sciences University Water Birth Guidelines

RCOG Waterbirth Guidelines – January 2001

Response Letter to 2004 Pediatrics Article: Missing the Point or Missing the Evidence – Mother says photograph of her son is misinterpreted

Spanish Protocols – Parto en agua protocolos- En Español

The Wonders of Waterbirth – In Metro-Parent Magazine, pgs 10-16

Underwater Birth and Neonatal Respiratory Distress: Letter of Response – June 2005 – Response to BMG May 2005 article (see AAP Pediatrics Arictles)

Water Exercises in Birth Pools – The Complete Book of Pregnancy and Childbirth by Sheila Kizinger, © 2000

UK Collaborative Hospital Audit of Waterbirth – 2001 Dianne Garland (MIDIRS)


Austrian WB Abstract: 2003 – 265 Deliveries in a University Hospital Compared to Women of Same Age, Parity, and Gestational Age Not Birthing In Water

BJOG – A Pilot Study for a Randomized Controlled Trial (RTC) of Waterbirth

Chinese Radomized Controlled Trial on Waterbirth – A Field Report of 51 Cases

Italian Waterbirth Study: 2001 – 555 waterbirths

Israeli Waterbirth Study: 1998 – Underwater birth is now deemed an acceptable type of delivery

Otigbah – A Retrospective Comparison of Waterbirths and Conventional Vaginal Deliveries

Waterbirths and the Exposure to HIV – Abstract on HIV and Waterbirth

AAP Pediatrics Articles and Other Negative Articles

2004 Schroeter: Waterbirths: A Naked Emperor

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004

Newborn Poorly Defined

BMJ May 2005: Underwater Birth and Neonatal Respiratory Distress

Pediatrics Commentary 2005: Underwater Births

Perinatal Medical Opinion: Amos Grunebaum and Frank A. Chervenak 2004

Ruth Gilbert Commentary

Underwater Birth – Missing the Evidence or Missing the Point

Underwater Birth – A Near Drowning Experience

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